News Center

Rational Water for irrigation science

Word:[Big][Middle][Small] Mobile page qrcode 2017/9/5     Viewed:    

(i) The wrong practices in greenhouse cultivation for irrigation

Because of the great changes of the ecological environment, the agricultural measures of the greenhouse are different from the operating mode under the environment condition. Especially in the facilities irrigation, its irrigation mode, time, irrigation water, etc. should be different from the operation under the open environment conditions. But at present, most vegetable growers are still accustomed to the operation of cultivating vegetables in the open field, using traditional irrigation methods, the result not only increases the employment and investment, wastes a lot of water and fertilizer, but also affects the growth and development of indoor crops, and induces the occurrence of many kinds of diseases.

Unreasonable irrigation mainly manifests in the following aspects: Flat furrow cultivation water full furrow irrigation, open deep ditch irrigation, no pipe, no plastic film, open channel irrigation, pouring out of the water, after 10 o"clock in the morning irrigation, noon, afternoon watering, cloudy and rainy, long time after entering the winter without irrigation; None of these practices are scientific, full furrow, deep ditch irrigation water quantity, waste water and fertilizer, compacted soil, ground temperature drop amplitude is big, do not cover the plastic film, open channel irrigation, pouring water, the moisture evaporation is big, the indoor humidity is high, the disease is serious; after 10 o"clock in the morning irrigation reduces the ground temperature, the indoor air humidity is high, The cold water temperature in the pit pond is 0-4 degrees in winter, which will cause the ground temperature to drop rapidly after irrigation, damage to crops, even cause frost damage occurred; Water is the basis of life, is the most basic raw materials of photosynthesis, any plant water shortage, light, heavy withered, long time no irrigation, will inevitably cause soil water shortage, can seriously affect the growth and development of crops, Can not continue to use.


(ii) Scientific irrigation

Greenhouse vegetable cultivation, because of its close tight, indoor air humidity, generally can be more than 20% higher than outdoor conditions. Especially after irrigation, if not pay attention to ventilation, often continuously 3-5 days, indoor air humidity is more than 95%, very easy to induce fungi, bacteria and other fungus diseases, and easy to spread rapidly, resulting in significant losses. Therefore, scientific irrigation and reduction of air humidity in the facility are the most important technical measures that must be paid attention to in the cultivation of greenhouse vegetables, so we must pay attention to the following points.

First, should not use open channels, water irrigation, should be used under the film of dark irrigation or infiltration irrigation, to minimize evaporation, and to water irrigation, to prevent the watering amount caused by waste, soil compaction, ground temperature dropped significantly, causing indoor air humidity, induced disease. Small water irrigation does not waste water and water, has not compacted soil, does not destroy the soil structure, the soil porosity is high, the supply uniformity, soil change, is advantageous to plant root growth and development and so on. Moreover, the subsurface irrigation can reduce the evaporation of soil moisture and heat dissipation, reduce the indoor air humidity, and help to prevent plant diseases.

Second, according to the weather conditions watering. Greenhouse watering must be done in sunny morning (6-9 hours), at the latest before the morning Lo Point. Cloudy and afternoon must not be watered, for sunny days can improve room temperature, can evaporate the surface residual moisture as soon as possible, the lowest in the morning, the ground temperature will not be lowered after watering, the early morning can open the vent, conducive to defecation, and can open before and after noon ventilation, reduce indoor air humidity, not because of water to improve indoor air humidity induced disease. And in the cloudy or afternoon watering, watering can not open large mouth ventilation, indoor humidity increases, must induce disease.

Third, to use well irrigation, in addition to the water in winter, the other temperature in the 0-4 ℃, such water, watering crops, will cause a sharp drop in ground temperature, damage to crop roots, and even cause cold injury phenomenon. And the well temperature is stable, even in the winter season, its temperature can still reach 16 ℃ or so. Using this kind of water to irrigate crops in the early morning will not cause ground temperature to drop.

Forth, according to the regularity of crop growth and development in greenhouse and water supply characteristics, such as general eggplant fruit and melon vegetables, the seedlings should be properly controlled watering to avoid seedling long, affecting flower bud differentiation. After fruit setting, water supply should be strengthened to promote fruit expansion and increase yield. Also for example, beans, cowpea and other legumes in the flowering before the watering should be controlled to prevent the growth of nutrition, causing falling flowers, after the pod should be properly increased water supply, to promote the rapid growth of young pods. Again such as Pepper root system is not developed, both the flood and fear of drought, should be watered, avoid water irrigation.

According to the indoor crop growth decide whether to water: plants in different moisture conditions their growth performance is different. For example, cucumber, water sufficient, the growing point of green, tendrils and melon stems of the angle is less than 45 °, water shortage, then the growing point leaves small, leaf color green, color deep in the lower leaves, its tendrils and melon stem angle is greater than 45 °, and prone to sharp-nosed melon. Guayan should be watered as soon as the above phenomenon occurs.

Six, before watering, should first meticulous spraying days up to 2116 and disease prevention liquid, improve crop resistance, protect crop leaves, stems, ear, in case of irrigation, humidity and induced disease.

The third, water to do three look: that is, look at the seedlings, look at the weather and decide whether to water.

① see seedlings, seedling growth point leaf color green, leaf color shallow in the lower leaves, indicating that water is sufficient, the growth of the color black or green, significantly deeper than the lower leaves, indicating that is water shortage. Cucumber new hair Coil base angle is more than 450, is lack of water, the base angle is less than 450, is sufficient moisture. The smooth and straight-tip of the melon is abundant in water, and the other is water shortage.

② See, melons, eggplant fruit crops generally require soil moisture to reach 85% or so, the surface can not appear waterlogged waterlogging, so watering water should be watered, as long as the hand to grasp the soil is not wet regiment, drop the bulk of the need to water, otherwise it will affect the results. Different soil, watering should be different, sandy soil does not keep the fertilizer, water, watering should be small, the interval should be short; clay soil, loam water conservation capacity is strong, water can be a little larger, the interval can be longer.

③ look day, watering must choose sunny morning, strive to finish before 9 o"clock in the morning. In the afternoon can not be watered on cloudy days, otherwise it will cause ground temperature drop and induce disease. Specific master: Results every 10 days or so after watering, winter solstice to spring can be properly controlled watering, 15-20 days, if even cloudy, can be extended to more than 20 days without watering. Insects after the weather warmer, watering should gradually increase, from 7 days or so to 5 days or so after the rain can be increased to 3 days or so, water should also be increased to fill ditch water. After watering should be around 10 o"clock close the tuyere, raise the temperature up to 33 ℃ above, 35 ℃ below, accelerate the surface residual moisture evaporation, 13 o"clock left and right open ventilation, excluding moisture, reduce indoor relative humidity, to prevent induced disease.

Eighth, the conditions should be carried out infiltration irrigation. Irrigation and furrow irrigation will eliminate the oxygen in the soil, make the soil compacted, the soil water vapor imbalance, cause the crop root hypoxia, not conducive to root development. Infiltration irrigation is the use of soil capillary action from the soil bottom layer of water absorption, fine hair tube suction water, thick pipe does not suck water, still have the right amount of air remaining, the soil is not lack of water, and not hypoxia, the proportion of moisture is right in the most suitable crop root needs of the state, conducive to crop root growth and development.

Therefore, in the future greenhouse cultivation of vegetables best practice infiltration irrigation, its methods are as follows: 1 furrow per 120-130 cm wide, first excavated deep in the middle of 20 cm, the bottom width of 50 cm, on the width of 80 cm, the bottom of the basic level of the trapezoidal soil groove, the groove laying width 100 cm, long than the furrow long out of 15 centimeters without broken, not leaking thick agricultural film , the film should be closed to the wall of the Earth, the membrane in the middle of 1 diameter 2-3 cm of hard plastic pipe, irrigation length and furrow length, one end closed, one end with irrigation sink or water pipeline connection, pipe wall along the horizontal direction of seepage hole, hole distance 15-20 cm, seepage hole place to sprinkle coarse gravel, and then combined backfill soil, Each square metre applicator organic fertilizer 10 kilograms, the whole is above the operation row 5 centimeters horizontal soil ridge, uses the rotary plough plough to turn over, the fertilizer soil mixes evenly. After the narrow line spacing 40 cm discharge vegetable seedlings, combined with the whole of the soil sealing seedlings into "M"-shaped ridge, ridge height of 20 cm, the middle of the earth Ridge set Chong fertilization ditch, ditch deep 10 cm, width 25-30 cm, after the irrigation in the ditch, water seepage after the dry, soil, plastic mulch. In the future, in addition to the application of organic fertilizers to be washed from the gully in the middle of the soil ridge, irrigation should be through water pipes or sinks connected to the seepage pipe seepage moist soil. The soil moisture and air content always maintained in the best condition.

Unreasonable irrigation mainly manifests in the following aspects: Flat furrow cultivation water full furrow irrigation, open deep ditch irrigation, no pipe, no plastic film, open channel irrigation, pouring out of the water, after 10 o"clock in the morning irrigation, noon, afternoon watering, cloudy and rainy, long time after entering the winter without irrigation; None of these practices are scientific, full furrow, deep ditch irrigation water quantity, waste water and fertilizer, compacted soil, ground temperature drop amplitude is big, do not cover the plastic film, open channel irrigation, pouring water, the moisture evaporation is big, the indoor humidity is high, the disease is serious; after 10 o"clock in the morning irrigation reduces the ground temperature, the indoor air humidity is high, The cold water temperature in the pit pond is 0-4 degrees in winter, which will cause the ground temperature to drop rapidly after irrigation, damage to crops, even cause frost damage occurred; Water is the basis of life, is the most basic raw materials of photosynthesis, any plant water shortage, light, heavy withered, long time no irrigation, will inevitably cause soil water shortage, can seriously affect the growth and development of crops, Can not continue to use.


Such treatment, once and for all, completely solved the soil"s water and fertilizer loss, hypoxia and high surface humidity of the drawbacks, not only save more than 40% of water and fertilizer, reduce employment, pesticide investment of about 30%, but also promote the root development of crops, make the plant robust, less disease harm, conducive to high quality.




Go Back
Print
[Upward]